According to the article, the program was launched a decade ago but has stalled as auto companies stopped making electric cars. Manufacturers must offer 22,000 smog-free vehicles beginning in the 2003 model year to comply with California’s rules. Supporters of the directive say requiring companies to make nonpolluting cars is the only way to force them to invest the time and money needed for technological breakthroughs. Automakers have tried to overturn the state’s mandate claiming it forces them to sell cars at a loss and to produce a product that will not satisfy motorists’ needs. A report by the air board staff found that a battery powered sedan is expected to cost $22,000 more to make than a comparable gasoline-powered model. While the short-term impact of electric cars would not be large, widespread use of zero-emission cars could reduce smog-forming exhaust in the Los Angeles area 30 percent by 2020.