The study, “Sustainable Value Creation by Chemical Companies” (PDF), published by an European research team including academics from the Queen’s University Management School in Belfast, used a “Sustainable Value” approach to assess corporate sustainability performance based on the value created with the resources used by the companies. This method takes into account economic capital as well as environmental and social resources.

DSM and AKZO also did not generate a positive sustainable value in the years assessed.

The study evaluated the companies’ total assets, water use, chemical oxygen demand of waste water, hazardous waste creation, emissions of greenhouse gases and volatile organic compounds, as well as acidification potential. Social indicators were also included in the assessment.